Makeup Water

Many industrial water systems utilize makeup water, which is freshwater that is added to an industrial water system to replace water lost due to blowdown, evaporation, wind drift, leaks, steam, humidification, or withdrawal. Makeup water is commonly utilized in a variety of systems, from cooling towers and steam boilers to high-temperature, chilled water, or dual-purpose systems. Within each system, makeup water must be treated a certain way:

Cooling Tower

The makeup water must be of a minimum standard of quality for the system to operate correctly. Cooling tower makeup water doesn’t require pretreatment if the impurities present in the water aren’t excessive.

High-Temperature Hot Water

Makeup water used for high-temperature hot water systems must be softened when its total hardness exceeds ten ppm.

Steam Boilers

In steam boilers, makeup water will likely have to be treated using water softeners to remove water hardness before use. Dealkalizers can be used to remove any alkalinity in the makeup water as well.

Chilled Water and Dual-Temperature

Makeup water used for chilled and dual- temperature water systems must be softened when its total hardness exceeds 250 ppm. Each of the above systems requires some level of demineralization or deionization, which is the use of cation and anion exchange resins to remove all ions from the water, resulting in mineral- free water.

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